6 minute read

Since it took me so long to get Lab 6 out the door i’ll post the review right away… After this we only have one memory leak lab to go before you have gone through the whole lab set.

Previous labs and setup instructions

If you are new to the debugging labs, here you can find information on how to set up the labs as well as links to the previous labs in the series.

Review the performance counters to figure out what we are leaking


  1. Compare the Working Set to GC Heap Size

    • Do the numbers seem to match or do they diverge? Based on this, can you tell if the issue we are facing is a virtual bytes leak, a native leak or a .NET leak?

      The memory usage on the GC heap goes up, but only by very little - so it doesn’t seem like a .net leak

  2. Look at the Number of Assemblies Loaded counter

    • Should this counter stay flat or is it ok for this counter to increase like this? What does it mean?

      The current assemblies counter tells us how many .net assemblies are loaded in the process. Typically you would see this go up at the beginning of a process or right after an application/appdomain restart since assemblies are loaded at that point. After this it should stay relatively flat. In this case it is constantly increasing which means that we keep loading up new assemblies during the lifetime of the process, and at a pretty steady rate. Since assemblies can not be unloaded unless the application domain is unloaded the memory used for loading these assemblies will not be returned.

Debug the memory dump

If there is a big discrepancy between Working Set and GC Heap Size, and they don’t seem to follow each other, we either have a native leak which means that we have a native component that is leaking (in which case debug diag would be the next step), or we have an assembly leak.

  1. Open the memory dump, load up the symbols and load sos.dll (see information and setup instructions for more info)

    • What is the size of the memory dump (on disk)?

      Around 460 MB

  2. Run !eeheap -gc and !dumpheap -stat

     0:000> !eeheap -gc
     Number of GC Heaps: 8
     Heap 0 (0000024F042494A0)
     generation 0 starts at 0x0000024F04826E98
     generation 1 starts at 0x0000024F047FBAA8
     generation 2 starts at 0x0000024F04761000
     ephemeral segment allocation context: none
             segment             begin         allocated              size
     0000024F04760000  0000024F04761000  0000024F04964EB0  0x203eb0(2113200)
     Large object heap starts at 0x0000025304761000
             segment             begin         allocated              size
     0000025304760000  0000025304761000  0000025304767CD8  0x6cd8(27864)
     Heap Size:       Size: 0x20ab88 (2141064) bytes.
     Heap 1 (0000024F042706A0)
     generation 0 starts at 0x0000024F847DCDB8
     generation 1 starts at 0x0000024F847B6460
     generation 2 starts at 0x0000024F84761000
     ephemeral segment allocation context: none
             segment             begin         allocated              size
     0000024F84760000  0000024F84761000  0000024F849CCE68  0x26be68(2539112)
     Large object heap starts at 0x0000025314761000
             segment             begin         allocated              size
     0000025314760000  0000025314761000  0000025314766048  0x5048(20552)
     Heap Size:       Size: 0x270eb0 (2559664) bytes.
     Heap 7 (00000253901AEDB0)
     generation 0 starts at 0x00000252847BCD60
     generation 1 starts at 0x0000025284786618
     generation 2 starts at 0x0000025284761000
     ephemeral segment allocation context: none
             segment             begin         allocated              size
     0000025284760000  0000025284761000  0000025284906D78  0x1a5d78(1727864)
     Large object heap starts at 0x0000025374761000
             segment             begin         allocated              size
     0000025374760000  0000025374761000  0000025374761018  0x18(24)
     Heap Size:       Size: 0x1a5d90 (1727888) bytes.
     GC Heap Size:    Size: 0x11a7ff8 (18513912) bytes.
    • What is the size of the .NET heap according to !eeheap -gc, why is it different from GC Heap Size?

      Around 18 MB - The GC heap counter doesn’t include Free objects

    We saw from performance monitor that we appeared to be leaking assemblies, so the next step is to determine where these assemblies are created and why we are leaking them.

  3. Run !dumpdomain to look at the assemblies loaded in the process

    • Which domain has most assemblies loaded? Note: this question makes more sense on a server where you have multiple sites running

      Domain 1 - the only non-system domain. On a server it would probably be the one serving the Buggy Bits app

    • Are these dynamic assemblies or assemblies loaded from disk? (is there a path associated with them)

      Dynamic - so something in the code is generating them

  4. Dump the module contents using !dumpmodule <moduleaddress> where module address is the address given right after Module Name on one or a few of the dynamic assemblies. eg. in the example below you would run !dumpmodule 00007ffcfe532d58

     Assembly:           0000025392f4b4f0 (Dynamic) []
     ClassLoader:        000002539340E710
     Module Name
     00007ffcfe532d58    Dynamic Module
  5. Run dc <MetaDataStart> <MetaDataEnd> to dump out the metadata for the module and find out what is implemented in this dynamic assembly. eg. in the example below you would run dc 114d09e4 114d09e4+0n4184

    Note: We use the start address + 0n4184 because the metadata is 4148 bytes and the 0n stands for decimal

     0:000> !dumpmodule 11b7e900
     Name: gyq9ceq2, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=null
     Attributes: PEFile
     Assembly: 158770d0
     LoaderHeap: 00000000
     TypeDefToMethodTableMap: 16e2a2c4
     TypeRefToMethodTableMap: 16e2a2dc
     MethodDefToDescMap: 16e2a33c
     FieldDefToDescMap: 16e2a3a8
     MemberRefToDescMap: 16e2a3d4
     FileReferencesMap: 16e2a4c4
     AssemblyReferencesMap: 16e2a4c8
     MetaData start address: 114d09e4 (4184 bytes)

    Note: If your assembly does not show MetaData start address - you have to take a bit of a leap with me and find out from the raw memory where the metadata starts - the example below is for a module at the address 00007ffcfe532d58

     0:000> dp 00007ffcfe532d58
     00007ffc`fe532d58  00007ffd`5c570f88 00000253`93187ffa
     00007ffc`fe532d68  00000253`92f4b470 00000000`00000000
     00007ffc`fe532d78  00000002`00200831 00000000`00000000
     00007ffc`fe532d88  00000253`92f4b4f0 00000000`26000000
     00007ffc`fe532d98  ffffffff`ffffffff 00000000`ffffffff
     00007ffc`fe532da8  00000000`00000000 00000000`00000000
     00007ffc`fe532db8  00000000`020007d0 00000000`c0000000
     00007ffc`fe532dc8  ffffffff`ffffffff 00000000`ffffffff

    Take the 2nd address 0000025393187ffa - this is where the metadata is stored, and print out the contents from there and 1000 bytes on

     0:000> dc 00000253`93187ffa 00000253`93187ffa+0n1000
     00000253`93187ffa  7263694d 666f736f 65472e74 6172656e  Microsoft.Genera
     00000253`9318800a  43646574 0065646f 45666552 5f74696d  tedCode.RefEmit_
     00000253`9318801a  654d6e49 79726f6d 696e614d 74736566  InMemoryManifest
     00000253`9318802a  75646f4d 5300656c 65747379 72502e6d  Module.System.Pr
     00000253`9318803a  74617669 6f432e65 694c6572 79530062  ivate.CoreLib.Sy
     00000253`9318804a  6d657473 6665522e 7463656c 006e6f69  stem.Reflection.
     00000253`9318805a  65737341 796c626d 73726556 416e6f69  AssemblyVersionA
     00000253`9318806a  69727474 65747562 74632e00 5300726f  ttribute..ctor.S
     00000253`9318807a  65747379 72502e6d 74617669 6d582e65  ystem.Private.Xm
     00000253`9318808a  7953006c 6d657473 6c6d582e 7265532e  l.System.Xml.Ser
     00000253`9318809a  696c6169 6974617a 58006e6f 65536c6d  ialization.XmlSe
     00000253`931880aa  6c616972 74617a69 576e6f69 65746972  rializationWrite
     00000253`931880ba  6d580072 7265536c 696c6169 6974617a  r.XmlSerializati
     00000253`931880ca  72576e6f 72657469 646f7250 44746375  onWriterProductD
     00000253`931880da  69617465 4d00736c 6f726369 74666f73  etails.Microsoft
     00000253`931880ea  6c6d582e 7265532e 696c6169 6974617a  .Xml.Serializati
     00000253`931880fa  472e6e6f 72656e65 64657461 65737341  on.GeneratedAsse
     00000253`9318810a  796c626d 69725700 5f346574 646f7250  mbly.Write4_Prod
     00000253`9318811a  44746375 69617465 6f00736c 69725700  uctDetails.o.Wri
     00000253`9318812a  74536574 44747261 6d75636f 00746e65  teStartDocument.
     00000253`9318813a  74697257 6c754e65 6761546c 6574694c  WriteNullTagLite
    • What type of assembly was this? What is it used for? How is it generated?

      Looks like it is an Xml.Serialization.GeneratedAssembly for ProductDetails so something used for xml serialization

Putting it all together and determining the cause of the assembly leak

If we look at the documentation for XmlSerializer we get the following information about dynamically generated assemblies related to XmlSerialization

Dynamically Generated Assemblies To increase performance, the XML serialization infrastructure dynamically generates assemblies to serialize and deserialize specified types. The infrastructure finds and reuses those assemblies. This behavior occurs only when using the following constructors:

  • XmlSerializer..::.XmlSerializer(Type)
  • XmlSerializer..::.XmlSerializer(Type, String)

If you use any of the other constructors, multiple versions of the same assembly are generated and never unloaded, which results in a memory leak and poor performance. The easiest solution is to use one of the previously mentioned two constructors. Otherwise, you must cache the assemblies in a Hashtable…

From this, and the fact that our performance logs and dump shows that we are continuously generating new XML serialization assemblies we can conclude that it is very likely that we are not using one of the standard constructors. Search the project code for new XmlSerializer or use reflector like in this example to determine where we are generating these dynamic assemblies.

  • What method / line of code is causing the problem?

      public ProductDetails GetProductInfo(string productName)
          ProductDetails product = new ProductDetails();
          ShippingInfo shipping = new ShippingInfo();
          product.ProductName = productName;
          shipping.Distributor = "Buggy Bits";
          shipping.DaysToShip = 5;
          product.ShippingInfo = shipping;
          Type[] extraTypes = new Type[1];
          extraTypes[0] = typeof(ShippingInfo);
          MemoryStream stream = new MemoryStream();
          --> XmlSerializer serializer = new XmlSerializer(typeof(ProductDetails), extraTypes);
          serializer.Serialize(stream, product);
          // TODO: save off the data to an xml file or pass it as a string somewhere
          return product;

    The XmlSerializer line is the one causing the issue, specifically because we are using the non-default constructor with extraTypes, which cause .net not to cache and reuse the dynamic assembly.

Have fun, Tess